SAChE Products can be used and adopted to learning environments including students in many different fields (such as chemical and mechanical engineering as well as chemistry and materials science) and practicing engineers (such as in safety training programs). We attempt to put the materials in an easy to use format, and modifications can be made to the materials to fit the circumstances.
Fire Protection Concepts
Section 1: “Fundamentals of Fire Behavior” describes some of the fundamental characteristics of fires including basic definitions, the fire triangle, and reaction mechanisms. Examples of burning gases, liquids, and solids are discussed and demonstrated in addition to the difference between a premixed flame and a diffusion flame. The importance of turbulence and buoyancy is discussed along with their effects on the behavior and size of large fires. (30 minutes)
Section 2: “Fire Extinguishment and Control” describes the major aspects of fire protection systems. National Fire Protection Association fire classification is discussed. Passive and Active methods of fire control are discussed. Passive methods include inventory reduction, replacement of flammable materials, separation of process areas from storage, diking and impoundment, and fireproofing of structures. Active methods include water for extinguishment and control, regular and high expansion foams, dry chemicals, vaporizing liquids, and inerting agents. Field tests demonstrating these methods are shown. (41 minutes)
Hyperlinks to streaming video sources are included in a word processing file to view the videos.
Process Safety Course Presentations
S. Mannan (Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University)
- Industrial hygiene
- Source models
- Atmospheric dispersion models
- Fires and explosions
- Designs to prevent fires and explosions
- Introduction to relief systems
- Sizing reliefs
- Hazard identification
- Risk assessment
- Accident investigation
These PowerPoint presentations can be adapted to fit the needs of the instructor.
Safe Handling Practices: Methacrylic Acid
- SACHE Product Introduction 2009: This describes the Rohm & Haas accident including a time line.
- Tank Car Video: This is a TV news report and and Rohm and Haas description of the tank car accident with methyacrylic acid that happened on July 22, 1988. (7 minutes)
- R&H Article: This is a description of an accident investigation method as applied to the Rohm & Haas accident.
- Acrylic Monomer Handling: This is a Rohm & Haas training presentation for safely handling acrylic monomers. Although the presentation is for acrylic monomers, the seven principles described are generally applicable for handling any monomer.
- European Bulletin: A Safe Handling Manual for methacrylic acid developed in Europe.
Note that a MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) and International Safety Card (containing NIOSH safety information) are included for methacrylic acid; since this information can become stale, updated information (available on the web) should be obtained when this instructional material is used.
Student access: All files are available to students logged into the site.
The Bhopal disaster: A Case History
This product includes three resources:
- Bhopal SACHE (Adobe pdf file) includes many details of the accident scenario including descriptions of the plant (and its equipment and piping), background chemistry, and potential hazards along with detailed references.
- Bhopal SACHE Presentation (PowerPoint) includes speaker notes and includes much of the material in the word document.
- The video, “Unraveling Bhopal,” describes Bhopal with many scenes of the city, plant, and accident scenario. This 16 minute video was produced by the Union Carbide Corporation and includes details of the accident and the subsequent Union Carbide investigation illustrating the details and complexities of an accident investigation. The video is available through streaming video in BhopalDescription.pdf.
Understanding Atmospheric Dispersion of Accidental Releases
This SACHE product is a relatively short CCPS concept book that includes a basic description of the processes involved in accidental releases of chemicals and the resulting downwind concentrations of gases, vapors, and aerosols. It describes the complex physics of neutrally buoyant vapors, dense-vapors, high-momentum releases, boiling and evaporating liquids, multiphase flow, and aerosol releases.
The focus of this document is not on the calculation methods, but on the physical problem descriptions. This information will give the reader an excellent background to understand the assumptions and results of dispersion analysis useful in developing emergency response plans or as a part of a process hazard analysis. The document is also a useful tool to assess methods to prevent or mitigate releases.
The material is intended only as a basic introduction to dispersion modeling and the interested reader is encouraged to consult the cited references for further information.