SAChE Products can be used and adopted to learning environments including students in many different fields (such as chemical and mechanical engineering as well as chemistry and materials science) and practicing engineers (such as in safety training programs). We attempt to put the materials in an easy to use format, and modifications can be made to the materials to fit the circumstances.
This SACHE product covers the fundamentals of explosions and some practices necessary for preventing explosions. The 35 minute video includes:
- Pictures showing the consequences of explosions.
- Discussion of definitions, such as auto-ignition temperature (AIT), lower and upper flammability limits (LFL/UFL), minimum ignition energy (MIE), limiting oxygen concentration (LOC), flash point (FP), etc.
- The distinction between physical and chemical explosions.
- Detailed discussions covering boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVES), dust explosions, deflagrations, and detonations.
The video can be used as an introduction to a lecture on explosions, or given to students for self study prior to a more detailed discussion in a classroom setting. This product can be used in universities or industrial training sessions. In the university, it can be used in various courses such as design, thermodynamics, kinetics, or a safety course. In industry, it can be used for new engineers as an introduction to chemical process safety.
The recommended practices and related references include:
- Explosion prevention technology, such as reliefs, venting devices, etc.
- Codes and Standards – NFPA, ASME, and API.
- Textbooks, CCPS Guidelines, Periodicals, Short Courses, and SACHE materials.
Student access: All files are available to students logged into the site.
Process Hazard Analysis: An Introduction
This is an introduction to Process Hazard Analysis that discusses the definition of PHA, why PHAs are important, what is a hazard, general safety concepts, and fire concepts including jet fires, pool fires, vapor cloud explosions, BLEVEs, physical explosions, chemical explosions, deflagrations, detonations, LFL/UFL, etc. Pictures of fires and explosions are also included.
The PowerPoint presentation can be used as a presentation to a group or as a self directed study (or homework). The product could be used in a university (in a design or safety course, for example) or in an industrial training setting as an orientation session for new engineers. Further information regarding PHAs can be found in the accompanying 2009 SAChE product “Process Hazard Analysis: Process and Examples”.
Process Hazard Analysis: Process and Examples
This discussion of Process Hazard Analysis focuses on the process, tools, and documentation required to complete a PHA. This product uses examples to illustrate the process and checklist methods typically used in a PHA, but details of the techniques for hazard review by HAZOP’s, FMEA’s, and FTA’s are not included (these are well documented in other resources). At the end of this module, participants should have a good grasp of how Hazard Identification, Hazard Evaluation, and Risk Analysis all combine into a process for documenting and performing a PHA. Liberal use of examples provides students with the experience necessary to apply these skills in new situations.
The presentation can be made to a group or as a self directed study (or homework). The product could be used in a university (in a design or safety course, for example) or in an industrial training setting as an orientation session for new engineers. An introduction to PHAs can be found in the accompanying 2009 SaChE product “Process Hazard Analysis: An Introduction”. This Introduction includes several files (material balance, P&ID, plant 3D model) that can be used as a project for students to apply the knowledge outlined here.
Project Risk Analysis (PRA): Unit Operations Lab Applications
Project Risk Analysis (PRA) is part of the OSHA Process Safety Management standard that considers both process-related hazards (e.g., fire, explosion, and toxic release) as well as other personnel safety-related hazards (e.g., noise, utilities, etc.). This SaChE product helps a lab instructor apply PRA in an undergraduate unit operations laboratory setting. Based on an industrial risk analysis approach, students document that they understand the potential hazardous events related to their project before experimental work begins based on an area tour; blank PRA check lists are provided. Whether students continue on to graduate school or begin their careers at an industrial site, this risk-based approach teaches tools that enhance students’ awareness of hazards to help ensure their safety when working in new and potentially hazardous environments.
This SAChE product includes:
- An overview of the information and its application (PRADescription.rtf),
- A detailed description of a risk analysis approach with applications to typical unit ops labs (PRAManual.doc, PRA Table 13.pdf, and PRA Table 14.pdf),
- Blank (Excel) tables that are used for each unit operations experiment considered (also available to students after logging into this site), and
- A PowerPoint presentation to introduce students to the concepts of PRA.
Student access: The hazard definitions, questionnaire, and workbook are available to students logged into the site.
Reactive and Explosive Materials
J. F. Louvar (Wayne State University)
The video "Reactive and Explosive Materials" was distributed as a SAChE product in 1999 as a VHS tape. The video has been extensively used by many university and industry professionals in training and educational environments.
This DVD contains excellent explanations and video of actual explosions that give students an understanding and a healthy respect for handling potentially hazardous chemicals. As stated on the video “What you know don’t know may kill you.” Topics discussed include:
- maximum safe storage temperature (MSST)
- self accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT)
- reactive chemicals
- pyrophoric liquids
- sensitive contaminated chemicals
- classes of hazards
There is no plan to distribute this video via the SAChE web site because it is copyrighted material. This 25 minute presentation can be used in lectures or assignments for homework or independent study. Professors can use it in various courses, such as kinetics, thermodynamics, process design, or a safety course. Industrial trainers can use it to introduce chemical process safety to their new chemists or engineers. Information on obtaining the DVD is available at http://www.rhr-inc.com/hazpro.htm. Neither SaChE nor its participants have been provided any remuneration associated with this information. (There are no downloadable files for this product.)
Seminar on Fire
This Powerpoint presentation (with notes) covers fundamentals of fires and explosions and is recommended as an introduction to the subject including such topics as:
- technical definition of fires and explosions,
- physical characteristics of various fires,
- necessary conditions for fires and explosions, and
- elementary properties, such as flammability limits (LFL and UFL), minimum oxygen concentration (MOC), minimum ignition energy (MIE), flame speeds, burning rates, etc.
This product helps prepare engineers to design systems that reduce the probability of fires and explosions. Some coverage also discusses the design methods used to mitigate fires (venting, fire proofing, fire suppression, etc.), and provides references for safe designs (NFPA, CCPS. etc.).